During the nineties, the hate crimes concept has been used to describe victimization on the basis of group characteristics. The Swedish penal Code 29:2:7 states that crimes committed against a person due to that person's race, color, nationality, ethnicity, religious beliefs or other similar circumstances, such as a person's sexual orientation, can elicit a more severe punishment than crimes without such motives.

The purpose of this thesis is to show if, where, by whom and why lesbians and gay men are victimized on the basis of their sexual orientation. Through a triangulation of methods, the results to be presented were produced in three studies covering 3 000 individuals and 50 organisations. The material, which includes 850 victimization narratives, tells us that 25 per cent had experienced what they interpreted as hate crime victimization. Between 15 and 24 per cent of females and between 28 and 36 per cent of males had been victimized, the majority during the last twelve months. Almost 50 per cent of these individuals had been victimized repeatedly.

Read more about the dissertation here.